Overuse Injuries: Cause and Effect (Part I)Injury Prevention
Gloria Cohen, MD is a specialist in non-operative sports medicine who believes in taking an integrative approach to medical management by considering a patients’ bio-mechanics, cardio-vascular and pulmonary function as it relates to athletic performance. Aside from her impressive medical career, Dr. Cohen is a successful competitive runner who has qualified twice for the New York Marathon and is also an off-road and road cyclist. Her academic insights are a combination of both research and real-world experience, the following article is her most recent commentary on the topic of “overuse injuries”:
What is an “overuse injury”?
An “overuse injury” is an injury that results when excessive stress is applied over a period of time to bones, muscles, tendons, and other supporting soft tissue structures of a particular body part. This differs from an acute injury which happens quickly and is traumatic in nature. Too much stress to a body part will cause the tissues to break down faster than healing can occur, thereby resulting in an injury. A good analogy would be to consider what happens to a credit card or a piece of metal when you bend it back and forth repetitively – first you see the stress reaction, and then with continued stress the item breaks in two. As you can appreciate, we want to avoid the latter situation when it comes to the body.
What are some common examples of “overuse injuries”?
Every body part can be affected by an overuse injury. Some common examples you might be familiar with are: rotator cuff injuries of the shoulder; epicondylitis or tennis elbow; patellofemoral pain syndrome of the knee; and tibial stress syndrome or “shin splints” for the lower leg. Here are a few case examples of classic overuse syndromes:
- A 40 year old male has recently increased the intensity and frequency of his swimming activity over the summer months. He now complains of pain in the front of his shoulder with overhead and rotation motion. Diagnosis: Rotator cuff tendinitis
- A 30 year old female has been playing tennis daily, now competing in matches at a more difficult level. She complains of increasing soreness in the outside aspect of her elbow. She had tried to play through the pain, but had to stop. She says that she can barely lift a coffee cup now because of the elbow pain. Diagnosis: Tennis Elbow /Lateral epicondylitis
- A 20 year college student takes up running during her summer break from school. When she returns to school, she decides to train for a half marathon. As she increases her mileage, and adds speed work to her training program, she develops pain in the inside aspect of one shin. She now complains of pain with just walking. Diagnosis: Shin splints/Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome
What are some of the specific causes of these “overuse injuries”?
As a primary care sports medicine physician I recognize that there are sport specific issues which may contribute to the resulting injury; but there are common “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” factors which play a major role in the development of these types of injuries. “Intrinsic” factors refer to the elements that we cannot control but that we can modify. These include biomechanical alignment, such as knock knees, bowl legs, flat feet or high arched feet; leg length difference; muscle imbalance; muscle weakness; and lack of flexibility. These factors can be modified to maximize the individual’s performance, and thereby treat or prevent injury. An example would be a conditioning program and sport specific training. The “extrinsic factors” include training errors, such as doing “too much too soon”; training surfaces – running on too hard a surface, or playing on an uneven surface; shoes – it is important to wear the appropriate type of shoe for your foot mechanics and the sport; equipment; and environmental conditions. Paying attention to the “extrinsic factors” will help you modify the “intrinsic” ones.
… to be continued in the next segment, Overuse Injuries: Recovery (Part II)