Did you know that the majority of young athletes are already dehydrated with they show up for practice or a game?
According to ONS Sports Medicine Specialist, Dr. Marc Kowalsky, improper hydration impacts mental alertness, physical performance and increases the risk of injuries.
“As little as 2 % dehydration can cause muscle fatigue and affect a young athlete’s aerobic performance, strength, stamina, and reaction time,” he said. “It can also put undue strain on the heart.”
Adequate hydration is vital to maintain normal blood pressure and improve blood flow and circulation, which affects the levels of oxygen and nutrients that are delivered to the muscles.
SYMPTOMS OF DEHYDRATION
When anyone exercises, the core body temperature increases. Sweating dissipates excess heat in response. “Hydration replaces the water lost through sweat and helps prevent cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke,” Dr. Kowalsky said.
Decreased athletic performance is just one sign that an athlete is fluid deficient. He or she may demonstrate such symptoms as irritability, fatigue, nausea, headache, muscle cramping and difficulty paying attention.
SIMPLE HYDRATION GUIDELINES
So how much does a young athlete need to drink to stay properly hydrated? The exact amount depends on a variety of factors, including the youth’s body size and the level of training and exertion expended during practice and games.
“In general, young athletes should drink ½ – 1 ounce of water per pound of body weight and minimize his or her water weight loss to no more that 2 percent of that body weight,” Dr. Kowalsky advised. In other words, a 100- pound child should lose no more than 2 pounds during exercise. The easiest way to establish a general guideline is to weigh your child before and after intensive athletics.
General hydration levels can also be checked by looking at the color of the player’s urine. The goal is for a clear, water-like appearance; from there changes toward a more concentrated color and density indicates dehydration.
Parents can help by encouraging their athletic children to drink plenty of water during the day, particularly an hour or two leading up to exercise, when they should have at least 16 ounces. Ideally, while playing, they should shoot for half a dozen big gulps of water every 15 – 20 minutes. After activity, 16- ounces for every pound lost through sweat should be replenished. However, over hydration has its own set of problems, so don’t let them go overboard with the fluids.
WATER AND SPORTS DRINKS
In general, water is best for sports sessions of an hour or less. Sports drinks can help to replenish the fluid, electrolytes and carbohydrates that are lost during more physically taxing conditions such as sports participation that exceeds 60 minutes, if there is extreme heat and humidity and/or if the young athlete is prone to excessive sweating. In these circumstances, experts recommend a sports drink with at least 110 – 240 mg of sodium per 8 ounce serving.
WHEN TO GET HELP
In general, mild symptoms of dehydration should go away shortly after the child has started hydrating. However, consult with a doctor right away if the symptoms persist, worsen or if the child faints, or seems disoriented.